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Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons is a unique effect in which the electronic states of a solid can self-organize to acquire quantum phase coherence. The phenomenon is closely linked to Bose-Einstein condensation in other systems such as liquid helium and laser-cooled atomic gases. This is the first book to provide a comprehensive survey of this field, covering theoretical aspects as well as recent experimental work. After setting out the relevant basic physics of excitons, the authors discuss exciton-phonon interactions as well as the behaviour of biexcitons. They cover exciton phase transitions and give particular attention to nonlinear optical effects including the optical Stark effect and chaos in excitonic systems. The thermodynamics of equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and nonequilibrium systems are examined in detail. The authors interweave theoretical and experimental results throughout the book, and it will be of great interest to graduate students and researchers in semiconductor and superconductor physics, quantum optics, and atomic physics.
This book has a synopsis of the 54 Speakers of the House. It covers those from the first Speaker, Frederick Muhlenberg to the current Speaker, Paul Ryan. Included is the significant legislation that they pushed through the House.